The Efficacy of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning in Improving Learners’ Reading Skills in Relation to Metacognitive Strategy


  • Sudiatama Universitas Pendidikan Mandalika, West Nusa Tenggara
  • Sadaf Dehghani Allameh Mohades University
  • Alex Zamorano University of UC Leuven-Limburg



mobile-assisted language learning, Reading Skills, metacognitive strategy


Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is a mobile device-based approach that is utilized in language learning to enhance students' reading proficiency. As mobile devices have become the dominant mode of learning due to prevailing conditions, it has become increasingly necessary to employ adaptable learning processes that aim to improve students' reading skills through the use of metacognitive strategies. Although reading is one of several skills essential to learning English, in the current pandemic situation, it is impractical to teach it directly. Therefore, the MALL approach is imperative to adapt to the new teaching-learning process, particularly in the current pandemic scenario. This study endeavors to assess the application of MALL and its impact on students' reading skills by conducting both qualitative and quantitative research. Data collection methods in this study include observation, documentation, and field notes. The study involved one problematic class, to which researchers implemented the MALL application, followed by tests and interviews at the end of the study. The results indicate a significant increase in students' reading skills, along with ease of learning during the pandemic. Thus, this study highlights the efficacy of the MALL approach in improving students' reading skills and adapting to the pandemic-induced new teaching-learning process.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sadaf Dehghani, Allameh Mohades University

Economics and Administrative Science, Allameh Mohades University, Iran

St: Mazandaran, Nur city, Iran

Alex Zamorano, University of UC Leuven-Limburg

PhD students of English department

University of UC Leuven-Limburg, Belgium


Akiba, M., Murata, A., Howard, C. C., & Wilkinson, B. (2019). Lesson study design features for supporting collaborative teacher learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 77, 352–365.

Akyol, H., & Boyaci-Altinay*, Y. (2019). Reading Difficulty and its Remediation: A Case Study. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1269–1286.

Al Adawiyah, A. (2023). CIRC Learning Model for Reading Comprehension of French Language. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 11(1), 104.

Al- Zyoud, A., Al Jamal, D., & Baniabdelrahman, A. (2017). Mind Mapping and Students’ Writing Performance. Arab World English Journal, 8(4), 280–291.

Albiladi, W. S. (2018). Exploring the Use of Written Authentic Materials in ESL Reading Classes: Benefits and Challenges. English Language Teaching, 12(1), 67.

Alfatihah, D. F. N., & Tyas, P. A. (2022). The Correlation Between Undergraduate-Students’ Reading Interest and Their Reading Comprehension. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(3), 343.

Almahasees, Z., & Qassem, M. (2021). Faculty perception of teaching translation courses online during Covid-19. PSU Research Review, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

Almekhlafy, S. S. A. (2020). Online learning of English language courses via blackboard at Saudi universities in the era of COVID-19: Perception and use. PSU Research Review, 5(1), 16–32.

Alquraishy, S. W., Sagban, A. A., & Adnan, H. (2020). The Role of Cubing Strategy in Improving Iraqi EFL Intermediate Learners’ Reading Comprehension and Attitude. International Journal of Innovation, 11(6), 14.

Alsuraihi, A. A. (2022). The effect of implementing mind maps for online learning and assessment on students during COVID-19 pandemic: A cross sectional study. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 169.

Angelini, M. L., & Álvarez, N. (2018). Spreading lesson study in pre-service teacher instruction. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 7(1), 23–36.

Anwar, I. W., & Sailuddin, S. P. (2022). Academic Reading Difficulties in Higher Education. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(2), 309.

Arndt, H. L., & Woore, R. (2018). Vocabulary learning from watching YouTube videos and reading blog posts. Language Learning, 22(1), 124–142.

Arshad, A., Shah, S. K., & Ahmad, M. (2020). Investigating cultural contents in English language teaching materials through textbook evaluation. Journal of Language and Cultural Education, 8(2), 127–145.

Baiq Sumarni, Dharma Dev Bhatta, & Kho, S. F.-C. (2022). The Use of Total Physical Response in Teaching Vocabulary Integrated with Meaningful Classroom Interaction. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 2(1), 23–32.

Bérešová, J., & Micallef, A. (2020). Online interaction descriptors: A tool for the development of tasks for language competences and language use. Journal of Language and Cultural Education, 8(3), 61–75.

Bice, K., & Kroll, J. F. (2021). Grammatical processing in two languages: How individual differences in language experience and cognitive abilities shape comprehension in heritage bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 58, 100963.

Brevik, L. M. (2019). Explicit reading strategy instruction or daily use of strategies? Studying the teaching of reading comprehension through naturalistic classroom observation in English L2. Reading and Writing, 32(9), 2281–2310.

Bruen, J. (2020). Language learning strategies for reading comprehension: Assessing the strategy use of young adults at beginners’ level taking Chinese, German, Japanese or Spanish as foreign languages at university. The Language Learning Journal, 48(2), 170–186.

Carroll, K. S. (2021). Developing and evaluating quality bilingual practices in higher education: Edited by Fernando D. Rubio-Alcalá, and Do Coyle, 2021, Bristol, UK, Multilingual Matters, £29.95, $39.95, €34.95, ISBN 9781788923682. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1–3.

Chang, J.-H., Chiu, P.-S., & Huang, Y.-M. (2018). A Sharing Mind Map-oriented Approach to Enhance Collaborative Mobile Learning With Digital Archiving Systems. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(1).

Chapelle, C. A. (Ed.). (2012). Technology in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teaching.

Chiang, F., Zhu, D., & Yu, W. (2022). A systematic review of academic dishonesty in online learning environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(4), 907–928.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th Edition). New York: Routledge.

Crosson, A. C., & Lesaux, N. K. (2010). Revisiting assumptions about the relationship of fluent reading to comprehension: Spanish-speakers’ text-reading fluency in English. Reading and Writing, 23(5), 475–494.

Dolba, S., Gula, L., & Nunez, J. (2022). Reading Teachers: Reading Strategies Employed in Teaching Reading in Grade School. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 2(2), 62–74.

Eliata, N. M. A., & Miftakh, F. (2021). Emphasizing text structure strategy instruction to scaffold 11th grade students’ reading comprehension. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(4), 411.

Firdaus, M., & Mayasari, S. (2022). Schoology-Aided Instruction: Measuring the Effectiveness for Student-Teachers’ Reading Comprehension Achievement. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(3), 380.

Firman, E., Haerazi, H., & Dehghani, S. (2021). Students’ Abilities and Difficulties in Comprehending English Reading Texts at Secondary Schools; An Effect of Phonemic Awareness. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 1(2), 57–65.

Gao, C., & Shen, H. (2021). Mobile-technology-induced learning strategies: Chinese university EFL students learning English in an emerging context. ReCALL, 33(1), 88–105.

Habibi, A., Jupri, & Dehghani, S. (2022). Developing the Prototype of Text-Based Learning Materials for the Teaching of Reading Skills at the Middle Schools. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 2(2), 75–87.

Haerazi, H., & Irawan, L. A. (2019). Practicing Genre-Based Language Teaching Model to Improve Students’ Achievement of Writing Skills. IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics), 4(1), 9.

Haerazi, H., & Irawan, L. A. (2020). The Effectiveness of ECOLA Technique to Improve Reading Comprehension in Relation to Motivation and Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(01), 61.

Haerazi, H., & Nunez, J. L. (2022). Promoting Intercultural Competences and Communication Skills through English Textbooks within Multilingual Education: Intercultural Language Learning; English Textbooks. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 1(2), 75–82.

Haerazi, H., Utama, I. M. P., & Hidayatullah, H. (2020). Mobile Applications to Improve English Writing Skills Viewed from Critical Thinking Ability for Pre-Service Teachers. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 14(07), 58.

Harding, L., Alderson, J. C., & Brunfaut, T. (2015). Diagnostic assessment of reading and listening in a second or foreign language: Elaborating on diagnostic principles. Language Testing, 32(3), 317–336.

Heo, H., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2021). Enhancing learning engagement during COVID ?19 pandemic: SELF?EFFICACY in time management, technology use, and online learning environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(6), 1640–1652.

Herwanis, D., Zakaria, R., Renaldi, A., & Sari, I. (2021). The Comparison Between SQ5R and Fix–Up Strategy in Reading Comprehension for EFL Secondary Level Learners. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(3), 336.

Hodges, D. Z. (2020). Online learning reaches the next generation. Dean and Provost, 21(12), 3–3.

Khazaie, S., & Jalilifar, A. (2015). Exploring the Role of Mobile Games in a Blended Module of L2 Vocabulary Learning. Teaching English Language, 9(1).

Khonamri, F., Sangari, M., & Yaqubi, B. (2021). Enhancing EFL learners’ quality of interaction through ground rules incorporated in collaborative strategic reading. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(3), 279.

Lazarinis, F., Alexandri, K., Panagiotakopoulos, C., & Verykios, V. S. (2020). Sensitizing young children on internet addiction and online safety risks through storytelling in a mobile application. Education and Information Technologies, 25(1), 163–174.

Lee, S. (2022). Factors affecting the quality of online learning in a task?based college course. Foreign Language Annals, 55(1), 116–134.

Putri, R. D. F., Hadi, M. S., & Mutiarani, M. (2021). The Efficacy of Instagram @Gurukumrd as the Media in Improving Students Reading Skills. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(3), 350.

Rafi, M. F., Islam, A. F., & Cahyani, D. A. (2021). The relationship between students’ reading attitude with the result of reading comprehension. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(4), 512.

Rodríguez-Fuentes, R. A., & Swatek, A. M. (2022). Exploring the effect of corpus-informed and conventional homework materials on fostering EFL students’ grammatical construction learning. System, 104, 102676.

Rokhayati, T., & Alvionita, E. (2022). The Use of Online Literature Circles to Enhance the Students’ Critical Reading Skill. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(1), 94.

Selim, S. M. M., & Islam, A. B. M. S. (2022). Engaged Reading: Moving from Theory to Implication for L2 Learners. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(3), 424.

Son, J.-B., & Park, J.-Y. (2012). Intercultural usability of language learning websites. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 7(2), 135–141.

Zano, K. (2022). Breadth and Depth-Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in an English First Additional Language Context. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(2), 223.

Zhang, D., & Zhang, L. J. (2019). Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in Second/Foreign Language Teaching. In X. Gao (Ed.), Second Handbook of English Language Teaching (pp. 883–897). Springer International Publishing.

Zhao, L., & Ye, C. (2020). Time and Performance in Online Learning: Applying the Theoretical Perspective of Metacognition. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 18(3), 435–455.




How to Cite

Sudiatama, Dehghani, S., & Zamorano, A. (2023). The Efficacy of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning in Improving Learners’ Reading Skills in Relation to Metacognitive Strategy. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 3(1), 53–66.