The correlation between students' reading and listening score in a standardized test of TOEFL

Authors

  • Mega Safitri Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
  • Anik Nunuk Wulyani Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
  • Suharyadi Suharyadi Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36312/esaintika.v5i2.472

Keywords:

assessment, TOEFL, reading, listening, correlation

Abstract

This study aimed at analyzing the correlation between reading and listening in TOEFL ITP test and how much reading predicts listening. It involved 50,684 reading and listening scores in 2015-2019 test periods of undergraduate students in one of the state universities in Malang. The data were collected by using standardized TOEFL ITP issued by ETS. Using Pearson Correlation Product Moment and linear regression analysis, the result demonstrated reading and listening had significant, linear, and strong correlation (.682), and reading significantly predicted 46.5% variance of listening. The results lead to the hypothesis that two language input skills, reading and listening significantly correlated and predicted one another. The result also suggested that correlation language skills not only occurred among reading and writing and listening and speaking, but also it happened in reading and listening. Moreover, the results suggested the combination of reading and listening activities in classroom activities.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ãlvarez-Cañizo, M., Suárez-Coalla, P., & Cuetos, F. (2015). The Role of Reading Fluency in Children’s Text Comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01810

Babayiğit, S., & Stainthorp, R. (2014). Correlates of early reading comprehension skills: A componential analysis. Educational Psychology, 34(2), 185–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2013.785045

Begeny, J. C., Krouse, H. E., Ross, S. G., & Mitchell, R. C. (2009). Increasing Elementary-aged Students’ Reading Fluency with Small-group Interventions: A Comparison of Repeated Reading, Listening Passage Preview, and Listening Only Strategies. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(3), 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-009-9090-9

Blonder, M., Skinner, C. H., Ciancio, D., Cazzell, S., Scott, K., Jaquett, C., Ruddy, J., & Thompson, K. (2019). A Comparison of Comprehension Accuracy and Rate: Repeated Readings and Listening While Reading in Second-Grade Students. Contemporary School Psychology, 23(3), 231–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-017-0169-3

Bozorgian, H. (2012). The Relationship between Listening and Other Language Skills in International English Language Testing System. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(4), 657–663. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.2.4.657-663

Cotter, J. (2012). Understanding the Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: Fluency Strategies as a Focus for Instruction. 73. Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. School of Education: Fisher Digital Publications

Devine, T. G. (1976). Listening and reading. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Reading Association of Ireland (Dublin, September 1976), ERIC.

ETS. (2010). Linking TOEFL iBT scores to IELTS scores - a research report. ETS.

Futransky, J. (1992). Relations Among Verbal Working Memory, Listening Comprehension, and Reading Skills [University of Rhode Island]. https://doi.org/10.23860/diss-futransky-joanna-1992

Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193258600700104

Hastuti, U. N., & Kalim, N. (2019). Correlation between Reading Comprehension and Listening Comprehension Skills in Completing TOEFL-PBT. 8.

Hogan, T. P., Adlof, S. M., & Alonzo, C. N. (2014). On the importance of listening comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3), 199–207. https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2014.904441

Hoover’, A., & Gough, B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127-160.

Jiang, D., Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2018). The Curious Case of Improving Foreign Language Listening Skills by Reading Rather than Listening: An Expertise Reversal Effect. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 1139–1165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-017-9427-1

Lems, K.(2012). Reading fluency and comprehension in English language learners. National-Louis University.

Muijselaar, M. M. L., Swart, N. M., Steenbeek-Planting, E. G., Droop, M., Verhoeven, L., & de Jong, P. F. (2017). The dimensions of reading comprehension in Dutch children: Is differentiation by text and question type necessary? Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(1), 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000120

Nation, P., & Yamamoto, A. (2012). Applying the four strands to language learning. International Journal of Innovation in English Language Teaching, 1(2), 167-181.

Palmer (1997). A Comparative Study of Listening and Reading Comprehension in Children of Different Age-groups. Thesis. University of Pretoria.

Ranto Rozak, R., Saleh, M., Linggar Bharati, D. A., & Sutopo, D. (2019). Reading While Listening (RWL) in an Extensive Listening Course to Reduce Student Teachers’ Foreign Language Listening Anxiety (FLLA). KnE Social Sciences, 3(10), 349. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i10.3916

Sulistyo, G. H. (2009). TOEFL in a brief historical overview from PBT to IBT. Bahasa dan Seni Journal, 37(2), 116-127.

Talada, J. A. (2007). The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension. (Doctoral Dissertation, Liberty University). Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/58825018.pdf

Tiendas, E. L. (2018). Examining the correlations of reading, listening, and writing abilities of intermediate learners of English as a foreign language (Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Surabaya). Retrieved from http://repository.uph.edu/2594/

Valentini, A., Ricketts, J., Pye, R. E., & Houston-Price, C. (2018). Listening while reading promotes word learning from stories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 10–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.09.022

Weir, C., Hawkey, R, Green, A., Unaldi, A., & Devi, S. (2009b). The relationship between the academic reading construct as measured by IELTS and the reading experiences of the students in their first year of study at a British university. IELTS Research Reports, 9, 97-156.

Wolf, M. C., Muijselaar, M. M. L., Boonstra, A. M., & de Bree, E. H. (2019). The relationship between reading and listening comprehension: Shared and modality-specific components. Reading and Writing, 32(7), 1747–1767. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9924-8

Downloads

Published

2021-07-30

How to Cite

Safitri, M., Wulyani, A. N. ., & Suharyadi, S. (2021). The correlation between students’ reading and listening score in a standardized test of TOEFL. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengkajian Ilmu Pendidikan: E-Saintika, 5(2), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.36312/esaintika.v5i2.472

Issue

Section

Educational Research Papers